The competitiveness of Indonesian universities nationwide in 2010 is still relatively lower than some other countries such as Malaysia, Thailand and Singapore. The main pillars of the competition are in productivity and innovation which depend on the competence and commitment of human resources. The purposes of this study are to determine factors that influence the competitiveness and organizational performance and to find the effect of competence and commitment of human resources and other factors to improve competitiveness and organizational performance. This research is a case study in two universities, PTN X and PTS Y. The results showed that the competitiveness strongly influenced the performance of HR besides other factors such as competence and commitment of human resources. The implementation of HRM variables, especially training and development and compensation variables, significantly affect performance. The variables of leadership, especially the willingness to give an example and speed of act affect on performance. Good Governance variables, accountability and social responsibility, significantly affected performance. Several important variables to increase competitiveness are: product academic improvement, consumer and financial perceptions improvement, basic competencies improvement, and higher emotional closeness and willingness to work more for the organization.